in The First Meeting of International Consortium of Landslides Cold Region Landslides Network, Harbin, China 49–54. Like all tsunami waves, it would also be prone to breaking in shallow water. Flow indicators from satellite imagery suggest that the maximum tsunami runup immediately adjacent to … "If it was September or any time in the summer, the wave could have gotten a fishing boat or two," Larsen said. At 8:19 p.m. Alaska Daylight Time on 17 October 2015, the side of a mountain collapsed on the western end of the head of Taan Fiord, a finger of Icy Bay. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 327-328:68-74. The quick detection of this event, the existence of high quality pre-event topographic data, … Numerical simulation of the Taan Fiord tsunami, showing the height of the moving water above the tide level. Nonetheless, the hazard from large landslide-generated waves will likely increase in the coming decades. Journal of Geophysical Research 111 no. On October 17, 2015, 180 million tons of rock slid into Taan Fiord, an arm of Icy Bay, generating a tsunami that stripped forest from 8 square miles (20 square km) of Wrangell St.-Elias National Park and Preserve and reached as high as 633 feet (193 m) above the … And in 2017, a landslide in Greenland produced a tsunami that roared into a small, isolated community. 2012. Note how the tsunami is strongly influenced by the topography, with large changes in run-up elevations over short distances. Courtesy of Ground Truth Trekking Visit our keyboard shortcuts docs for details, Next Chapter: Catastrophic Glacier Collapse and Debris Flow at Flat Creek, Previous Chapter: Geohazards in Alaska’s National Parks. 2018. The Taan Fiord event would have been a good candidate for active monitoring because precursory motion generated large, easily measured displacements (e.g., visible even in low-resolution Landsat imagery). Climate Change. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface 123(10): 2443-2463. The tsunami moved boulders up to 16 feet (5 m) in diameter where it was largest (Figure 3). Some 200 million metric tons of rock slid down the mountain in a crash that must have been deafening. These deposits are distinctive in their character, up to 70 m thick, and we anticipate that other such deposits should be recognizable in other fjords. These tsunamis may reach several hundred meters above the water, but affect a much smaller area than their long-period cousins. More recently, a 2015 landslide near Alaska’s Taan Glacier produced a 633 feet (193 meter) wave in Taan Fjord that smashed into the opposite wall of the glacial valley. Additionally, glacial retreat is exposing new bodies of water that may be vulnerable to tsunamis. Initial observations of the 11 June 2012 rock/ice avalanche, Lituya mountain, Alaska. Higman, B., D. H. Shugar, […] M. Loso. Changes like this can render existing nautical charts unreliable and might mean that they need to be updated with new bathymetric surveys before large ships can return to waters impacted by similarly large landslides. Inversion of long-period waves arriving at nearby seismometers identified the general area and direction of the landslide. Taan Fjord is a long, and narrow fjord created by the retreat of the Tyndall glacier over the past 50 years The fjord is ~ 15 km in length, with depths to ~180 m The coastline along Taan is a mix of glacial moraines, alluvial fans, dense brush, and steep, barren slopes. Higman, B., M. Geertsema, D. Shugar, P. Lynett, and A. Dufresne. Vegetation loss is clear near the water line. Natur Forscher rekonstruieren Mega-Tsunami, der sich 2015 in Alaska ereignete. Forscher rekonstruieren Mega-Tsunami, der sich 2015 in Alaska ereignete.  On 9 July 1958, a 7.8 M w strike-slip earthquake in southeast Alaska caused 90 million tonnes of rock and ice to drop into the deep water at the head of Lituya Bay. VIDEO: Camp Bay, velocity. George, D. L., R. M. Iverson, and C. M. Cannon. The slide caused tens of meters of shallowing in some areas, while it eroded sections of the pre-landslide shoreline. The 2015 tsunami was the largest to occur in this narrow window of time, but it likely wasn’t the only tsunami. Die Folge war ein Tsunami mit knapp 200 Meter Höhe. Even below the inundation line on the protected side of this hill, there were more rooted trees and intact soil than in less-protected areas. 180 Millionen Tonnen Gestein donnerten damals in einen Fjord. And in 2017, a landslide in Greenland produced a tsunami that roared into a small, isolated community. Multibeam sonar and sub-bottom profiling show blocky deposits capped by more homogenous layered deposits filling the fjord bottom (Haeussler et al. Days later, high-resolution satellite imagery revealed the landslide and tsunami impacts, and tide gage data from more than 90 miles (~150 km) away at Yakutat showed small fluctuations in water level (4 inches or ~0.1 m) resulting from the tsunami. Precursory deformation began decades before failure, and the event left a distinct sedimentary record, showing that geologic evidence can help understand past occurrences of similar events, and might provide forewarning. These results could then be compared to areas of infrastructure development, popular tourist destinations, and ship course data (e.g., from Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship-tracking systems) to identify areas of particular vulnerability. The rapid retreat of the glacier destabilized the steep slopes of the surrounding mountains and a massive landslide occurred on October 17, 2015. In Grönland löste ein Erdrutsch an der Westküste im Jahr 2017 eine über 90 Meter hohe Welle aus , die einen Großteil eines nahe gelegenen Fischerdorfes zerstörte und vier Menschen tötete. Reconstruction of a debris-slide-initiated flood in the southern Kenai Mountains Alaska. On October 17, 2015, 180 million tons of rock slid into Taan Fiord, an arm of Icy Bay, generating a tsunami that stripped forest from 8 square miles (20 square km) of Wrangell St.-Elias National Park and Preserve and reached as high as 633 feet (193 m) above the fjord, the fourth-highest tsunami ever recorded. In contrast, one small island that used to support supra-tidal vegetation was scoured down such that now it is only a shoal emerging at low tide (location marked on Figure 5). It triggered a tsunami wave with a runup height exceeding 90 m close to the landslide, ca. Runup of nearly 650 feet (200 m) shows that the Taan Fiord tsunami was likely about 300 feet (100 m) in height, and complex variability in the peak runup shows the wave had a very short period. See more pictures of Tyndall Glacier here: Go to Tyndall Glacier. Assuming these trees were originally circular in cross-section, some must have lost at least 4 inches (10 cm) of wood to achieve the scoured shape we observed. A few sites showed that hills can provide significant protection from the worst tsunami impacts. Recent papers take a detailed look at the events leading up to and during one of the most massive landslide and tsunamis ever recorded. Direkt neben dem Tyndall-Gletscher stürzten sie in die Tiefe und verdrängten abrupt das Wasser im Tal, wodurch sich eine gewaltige Flutwelle bildete. July 15, 2020. The Lituya slide, though very large, came to rest some 6 miles (10 km) from tidewater. When they retreat, whether due to changing climate or to regular glacial cycles, they remove that support, allowing slopes to sag and fractures to expand, making them vulnerable to failure. Der Felsabbruch im Jahr 2015 mit folgendem Tsunami in der Icy Bay Urheberrecht: A. Dufresne Abbildung 1. Dufresne, A., M. Geertsema, D. H. Shugar, M. Koppes, B. Higman, P. J. Haeussler, C. Stark et al. Coastal Features, Glaciers, Alaska. Photo: Ground Truth Trekking (CC BY-NC 3.0) As Glaciers Melt, Will Deadly Landslides Increase? 2019. On 17 October 2015, a landslide of roughly 60 × 106 m3 occurred at the terminus of Tyndall Glacier in Taan Fiord, southeastern Alaska. In Alaska, four giant tsunamis have been triggered by subaerial landslides in the past century: in Lituya Bay in 1938 and 1958 (Miller 1960); in Grewingk Lake in 1967 (Wiles and Calkin 1992); and in Taan Fiord in 2015 (Higman et al. Sie schickte eine Tsunamiwelle, die 193 m hoch an den gegenüberliegenden Talhängen aufprallte. The need to understand short-period landslide generated tsunamis was a major motivation for our study of the Taan Fiord event. The 2015 landslide and tsunami in Taan Fiord, Alaska. “In Taan Fiord (Icy Bay, Alaska), a landslide that began moving slowly decades ago suddenly failed in October 2015. At least two sites (see Figure 1) along the fjord have fresh landslide deposits extending into the ocean, and a ridge opposite the 2015 slide is laced with fissures that may produce future failures. 2017. Giant waves in lituya bay, Alaska. Sedimentology and geomorphology of a large tsunamigenic landslide, Taan Fjord, Alaska. A small portion of the landslide traveled across the fjord bottom and slid back up above the waterline on the far side of the fjord, forming 30-70 feet-high (10-20 m) debris hillocks. Slope failure at the terminus of Tyndall Glacier on 17 October 2015 sent 180 million tons of rock into Taan Fiord, Alaska. October 1, 2020 - by Tim Lydon. Scientific Reports 8: 12993. Much of the landslide material was deposited on the Tyndall Glacier and into the fjord. Geowissenschaft: Tsunami im Taan-Fjord. Research results will provide critical insight into the processes of a landslide-triggered tsunamis and a benchmark for modeling landslide and tsunami hazards that may prove an indispensable tool in a warming climate. Finally, in troughs between waves vessels might ground on obstacles that would otherwise pose no threat. Not all Alaskan rockslides possess the same potential as the Taan Fiord event for generating giant waves that might endanger vessels. The Taan Fiord tsunami was preceded by a century of rapid glacial retreat (Koppes and Hallet 2006), decades of ground cracking and creep (Meigs et al. Numerous landslides and at least two smaller landslide tsunamis have occurred in Alaska recent years (e.g., Geertsema 2012, Coe et al. CoastView. Geologic effects and records of tsunamis. The 2015 landslide and tsunami reshaped the landscape at the terminus of Tyndall Glacier. Taan Fjord is remote, but the Tidal Fjord in tourist-heavy Glacier Bay, Alaska, saw a landslide in June 2016. ... a 2015 landslide at Taan Fjord … However, no such preparation was conducted and it’s urgent that we learn from the 2015 event and take steps to assess and mitigate hazards in Icy Bay and elsewhere before another event happens. Die daraus resultierende Welle war bis zu 193 Meter hoch Dieser Tsunami war wahrscheinlich durch den Chicxulub-Impakt vor 66 Millionen Jahren verursacht worden. Ground Truth Trekking, licensed under CC BY 3.0 . A very nice video has been posted on Youtube describing the link between the giant Icy Bay landslide in Alaska in 2015 (this landslide is also variously known as the Taan Fjord landslide and the Tyndall Glacier landslide), which is the largest known recent landslide in North America, and the melting of the adjacent glacier. “The resulting tsunami reached elevations of … Am 17. A structure built here or in analogous locations would likely fare better even than more exposed locations that are significantly farther from the tsunami source. In the last century, 10 of the 14 highest tsunamis in the world were in glaciated mountains and four were in Alaska parks, which include vast tracts of glaciated terrain (Table 1). The 2015 landslide and tsunami in Taan Fiord, Alaska. Ekström, G. and C. P. Stark. Ground Truth Trekking, licensed under CC BY 3.0. Ideally, new development in areas of potential tsunami inundation could be designed to maximize options for evacuation and minimize costs of reconstruction after an event. Malaspina Glacier. English: Changes in Taan Fiord. They happen quickly and pose a threat to anything and everything in their path. Higman, Bretwood, Dan H. Shugar, Colin P. Stark, Göran Ekström, Michele N. Koppes, Patrick Lynett, Anja Dufresne et al. 11. Coe, J. All 10 of the highest tsunami runups ever recorded were caused by this mechanism of a landslide entering a water body. 2006), a month of above-average rain, and a few seconds of mild shaking from a distant earthquake (Higman et al. Recent papers take a detailed look at the events leading up to and during one of the most massive landslide and tsunamis ever recorded. The October 17th, 2015 Taan Fiord landslide and tsunami generated a runup of 193 m, nearly an order of magnitude greater than most previously surveyed tsunamis. We are able to image the landslide and postlandslide deposits, on and beneath the fjord bottom, up to 6 km away from where it entered the water. However, due to the differences outlined above, it is unclear how much of this work can be directly applied to tsunamis from subaerial landslides. In jüngerer Zeit löste ein Erdrutsch im Jahr 2015 im Taan-Fjord in einem abgelegenen Gebiet westlich von Yakutat, Alaska, einen Tsunami aus, der mehr als 200 Meter hoch war. The glacier is named after the Tlingit native word for "Sea Lion". Tyndall Glacier, Taan Fjord Mega-Tsunami. At the same time, glaciers fill the valley, preventing failure of lower slopes and supporting higher slopes to reduce the chance of slope collapse. Other fjords at the head of Icy Bay have steep slopes that haven’t yet been surveyed for potential landslide hazards. 2018). Die daraus resultierende Welle war bis zu 193 Meter hoch . The evacuated subaerial landslide area and runout are visible to the left of the fjord head. We are currently working to model the tsunami in more detail, using a numerical model tested against tectonic tsunamis. The tsunami was triggered by a landslide on October 17, 2015, at the head of the fjord. Modeling based on potential sources can help outline areas of likely impact, with an emphasis on sites with known risk factors. Depending on the geometry, size, and speed of this force, the nature of the resulting tsunami wave can vary dramatically. Some of the rock slid onto the snout of a tidewater glacier but most slid into the head of Taan Fjord – displacing a massive volume of water. 50 m on the opposite shore of the fjord. 2). The October 17th, 2015 Taan Fiord landslide and tsunami generated a runup of 193 m, nearly an order of magnitude greater than most previously surveyed tsunamis. Several alluvial fans collapsed into deeper water as the slide moved along their fronts on its way down the fjord. The Tsunami Generated by the October 17th, 2015 Taan Fjord Landslide Patrick Lynett, Robert Weiss, Andrew Mattox, Vassilios Skanavis, Bretwood Higman, Adam Keen, Hui Tang, Colin Stark, Aykut Ayca Photo property of Bjørn Olson. Signs of active displacement are clearly visible in remote-sensed data extending back to the mid-1990s. The 2015 landslide and tsunami reshaped the landscape at the terminus of Tyndall Glacier. Smaller vessels might experience some of the same hazards as can be found in tidal rapids—strong eddy-lines and whirlpools that can capsize and sink boats. The event was detected within hours through automated seismological techniques, which also estimated the mass and direction of the slide - all of which were later confirmed by remote sensing. “Earlier, we … Adventure kayakers, trophy bear hunters, commercial and sport fishers, and even cruise ships visit Icy Bay (Figure 2). The 2015 landslide and tsunami in Taan Fjord, Alaska. Sedimentary Geology 364:302-318. The area is uninhabited and no one was visiting it at the time, and the event went undetected for several hours until its signature was noted as a 4.9-magnitude event on the Richter scale on seismograms at Columbia University in New York City. Months later, teams of scientists visited the site to document both the landslide and tsunami. Glacial landslides, or glacial detachments, are a phenomenon of a warming planet. Die Flutwelle scheint gewaltige Ausmaße gehabt zu haben. 2018. Our results call attention to an indirect effect of climate change that is increasing the frequency and magnitude of natural hazards near glaciated mountains. Tyndall Glacier flows to the head of Icy Bay, about 160 miles (258 km) east-southeast of Cordova and 68 miles (110 km) northwest of Yakutat, Alaska. Tsunami-inducing landslides are rare but have occurred in Alaska and elsewhere. 2009. Using a variety of Digital Elevation Modeling (DEM) and imagery sources, the research team was able to estimate the landslide volume, document movement leading up to the event, and map the deposit thickness. They crash ashore more like a wind wave, rising to their peak elevations within a few minutes at most. Geomorphology 78: 207–221. The articles call attention to the increasing frequency and magnitude of natural hazards near glaciated mountains and attributes these incidents, indirectly, to climate change. Simple scaling of catastrophic landslide dynamics. The 2015 Taan Fiord landslide and tsunami. On October 17th, 2015, the largest landslide in North America in decades occurred in Taan Fjord, an arm of southeast Alaska's Icy Bay. And in 2015, a landslide-generated tsunami in the Taan Fjord in Icy Bay, Alaska, caused a 300-metre run-up of water, says Synolakis. Klaus Taschwer . Climate change has increased the risk of a huge landslide in an Alaskan fjord that could cause a catastrophic tsunami, scientists said Thursday. Those first rocks shoved more rocks, and then more still. More recently in 2015, a landslide in Taan Fjord sent roughly 10 million cubic yards of material tumbling into the waters of the remote area west of Yakutat, Alaska and caused a tsunami … Tsunami impacts near the landslide. Koppes, M. and B. Hallet. It hit the ocean, sending up a wave that peaked at nearly 600 feet high. Due to the geometry of the bay, a tsunami in a different arm would more directly impact the outer part of Icy Bay, where there is more human activity. Flow depth here was likely 5 meters based on the height of branches stripped off trees in the background. In Taan Fiord, Alaska, we collected excellent postlandslide data of the Earth's surface, both above and below sea level. Am 17. Figure 4 shows the 2012 Hubbard and Lituya landslides (Geertsema 2012). Though logging along its shore has ended, plans for a large-scale mine are being explored, potentially creating another vulnerable facility. Meigs, A., W. C. Krugh, K. Davis, and G. Bank. 1960. A small volume of the total slide mass remains within the source area and is topped by striated blocks (> 10 m across) and standing trees that were transported down the slope in intact positions during the landslide. Erosion rates during rapid deglaciation in Icy Bay Alaska. No one heard the mountainside fall into the fjord on … The October 17th, 2015 Taan Fiord landslide and tsunami generated a runup of 193 m, nearly an order of magnitude greater than most previously surveyed tsunamis. September 2018, 08:00 57 Postings. Gullufsen, K. 2018. Taan Fiord is about 100 km from the nearest town, Yakutat, AK. Tsunamis caused by earthquakes are typically long-period waves, meaning they rise and fall gradually. A decade before catastrophic failure in 2015, Meigs and others (2006) noted ground-cracking and deformation, and aerial topographic surveys documented tens of meters of gradual motion (Higman et al. DOI: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2017.10.004, A giant landslide fell into Taan Fiord, Alaska, on 17 October 2015 and caused a tsunami that ran up 193 m—the fourth highest ever recorded. Im Jahr 2017 löste ein Erdrutsch im Karrat-Fjord einen Tsunami aus, der vier Menschen tötete und die Stadt Nuugaatsiaq in Grönland zerstörte. The landslide flowed into Taan Fjord, triggering a localised tsunami that was detected 155 km away, according to the Lamont-Doherty press release. Sedimentology and geomorphology of a large tsunamigenic landslide, Taan Fiord, Alaska, Submarine deposition of a subaerial Landslide in Taan Fiord, Alaska, Previous Chapter: Modern Changes in Kennicott Glacier: Implications for Residents, Visitors, and the Other 3,120 Glaciers in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. Initial estimates of the maximum tsunami run up were as high as 150 m using the Alaska IfSAR-derived DEM. These events are rare; most occurred more than 60 years ago, and the physical environment before and after the landslide are generally not well documented. Alaska parks are prone to events like this. The Taan Fiord event could have been anticipated based on decades of precursory movement that preceded catastrophic failure, had such analysis been conducted prior to the failure. The person in the photo is standing about 190 m above the fjord level, just below the limit of inundation (near the point marked with 193 m runup in Fig. The degree of destruction increased away from the limit of inundation, areas 60 feet (20 m) below that limit were typically so hard-hit that only a few torn roots and soil remnants remained, while trees near the limit were often toppled but still rooted. 2018). Tree trunks that remained standing after the tsunami were scoured by strong sediment-laden currents that sometimes severely abraded the upstream side of trees, leaving them peppered with small rocks (Figure 3). USGS scientists investigate trees knocked over by the tsunami at the mouth of Taan Fjord, Alaska. Climate warming is likely driving an increase in the frequency of large landslides and promoting the growth of deep bodies of water where large tsunamis can form. Global Historical Tsunami Database. Part of the debris traversed the width of the fjord and re-emerged onto land, depositing coherent hummocks with preserved source stratigraphy on an alluvial fan and adjacent moraines on the far side of the fjord. The wave affected the entire length of the fjord. Piles of earth and rock following the 2015 Taan Fjord landslide and tsunami. The tsunami travelled ca. Ground Truth Trekking, licensed under CC BY 3.0. Large landslides are on the increase in southeast Alaska (Coe et al. Land-slides that generate large tsunamis most often happen in landscapes with retreating glaciers. Lodge operators and visitors might have been warned of the risk; tsunami modeling likely could have accurately shown the impacts would be potentially severe within the fjord, but would only extend a short way into the main bay. Two-and-one-half-miles (4 km) farther, on a section of the west coast of Icy Bay that faces directly toward the mouth of Taan Fiord, the wave reached 36 feet (11 m) and toppled trees, but quickly diminished to below high tide as it spread out along the coast (Figure 2). Ships carried in such currents would be vulnerable to collisions that could rupture the hull, or they might be carried broadside into shoals where they could be rolled over. Landslides doi:10.1007/s10346-017-0879-7 Colonel Foster, British Columbia, Canada. These collapsed fans left no clear deposit—presumably because they were incorporated into the moving submarine slide mass. Unlike during the Lituya Bay tsunami -- during which three anchored boats were sunk by or rode atop a 100-foot wall of water -- no fisherman were in Taan Bay at the time of the slide. Deposits were more typically 12-20 inches (30-50 cm) thick over areas as far as 6 miles (10 km) from the source. Alaska Park Science 18(1):6-15. Having detected the Tyndall Glacier landslide, Stark and Ekstrom located it with a very high resolution satellite image, which Lamont-Doherty have included in their press release : In the case of Taan Fjord, the result was a massive tsunami," said Dr Dan Shugar, assistant professor of Geoscience at the University of Washington Tacoma and co-author of the report. Lynett, P., J. Borrero, R. Weiss, S. Son, D. Greer, and W. Renteria. Mt. 2018. Taan Fjord is on the east side of Icy Bay, about 14 miles (22 km) north-northeast of Point Riou. The October 17th, 2015 Taan Fiord landslide and tsunami generated a runup of 193 m, nearly an order of magnitude greater than most previously surveyed tsunamis. The black arrows show only the direction of the moving water; together with the color the viewer is able to see both the magnitude and direction of the tsunami flow. New methodology for computing tsunami generation by subaerial landslides: Application to the 2015 Tyndall Glacier landslide Alaska. To date, most post-tsunami surveys are from earthquake-generated tsunamis and the geomorphic signatures of landslide tsunamis or their potential for preservation are largely uncharacterized. Geertsema, M. 2012. 2018), and as glaciers continue to migrate landwards, water bodies such as fjords and lakes will also grow landward toward steep, recently deglaciated terrain, increasing the potential for more landslides, more “direct hits” into water, and therefore more, and possibly larger landslide-generated tsunamis. Areas near stream deltas or other sediment sources might be buried by transported sediment. Russel, I. C. 1893. 2013. An 800 foot (250 m) diameter hill that was surrounded but not overtopped by the tsunami had runups of over 160 feet (50 m) where the tsunami directly impacted it, but less than 65 feet (20 m) on the lee side (Figure 5). Submarine deposition of a subaerial Landslide in Taan Fiord, Alaska. Taan Fjord Landslide and Tsunami. No one observed the slide or tsunami directly, but automatic seismic systems identified it within hours (using methods from Ekström and Stark 2013). Worldwide glacial retreat and thinning, it states, exposes unstable slopes and increases the likelihood of major landslides, triggering high-runup tsunamis. The 2015 Taan Fjord tsunami was generated by a 99 million cubic yards (76 million cubic meters) landslide that occurred following retreat of the Tyndall Glacier. Systematic field surveys of potential sources and remote analysis and monitoring of these sources for precursory movement could help identify likely landslide sites. In contrast, tsunamis generated by subaerial landslides (as well as ice-calving and meteor impacts) are often much shorter-period, flooding the land more rapidly, and affect a smaller area. See this video that describes the landslide and tsunami and the coordinated research that investigated it. This landslide-generated tsunami had a maximum height of over 600 feet. Sedimentology and geomorphology of a large tsunamigenic landslide, Taan Fiord, Alaska. National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS). A wave of such extreme amplitude and short wavelength would be likely to break even at fjord depths of hundreds of feet. Submarine deposition of a subaerial landslide in Taan Fjord, Alaska. At the mouth of the fjord, 10 miles (16 km) from the landslide, the wave reached 50 feet (15 m), and dragged icebergs through moraine hills. Geomorphology 5: 535–546. Presumably what little sediment was available in these areas was transported offshore. Oktober 2015 kamen 180 Millionen Tonnen Fels plötzlich ins Rutschen. We are able to calculate the volume of the landslide and the volume that entered the fjord. Want more? The looming tsunami of Harriman Fjord 180 Millionen Tonnen Gestein donnerten damals in einen Fjord. The wave affected the … The landslide began as a rotational slide, likely following planes of weakness established decades earlier when failure initiated shortly after glacial retreat. To date, most post-tsunami surveys are from earthquake-generated tsunamis and the geomorphic signatures of landslide tsunamis or their potential for preservation are largely uncharacterized. Ultra-rapid landscape response and sediment yield following glacier retreat Icy Bay, southern Alaska. In the case of the massive landslide that fell into Taan Fjord, Alaska, the answer was no—and yes. A systematic analysis of this sort could inform park development planning and public education efforts that could reduce risk. Much of the landslide material was deposited on the Tyndall Glacier and into the fjord. One rough result has been published (not related to our study) that jointly models the landslide and tsunami (George et al. Imagery from before the landslide shows that the catastrophic slope failure was preceded by deformation and sliding for at least the two decades since the glacier retreated to its current terminus location, exposing steep and extensively faulted slopes. The wave traveled down the fjord, dislocating sediment and … 2018. "Oct. 17, 2015, Taan Fjord, Icy Bay, Alaska. Most of the research on tsunami impacts has focused on longer-period regional tsunamis—especially subduction zone earthquake tsunamis that produce some of the longest period waves. At Taan Fjord in 2015, a landslide caused a tsunami that crested at 600 feet. Tsunamis generated by subaerial landslides are often confined to a few tens of kilometers around the landslide, both because shorter-period waves disperse energy more quickly and because they commonly are triggered in relatively confined bays and lakes. Our field observations provide a benchmark for modeling landslide and tsunami hazards.
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