Read here the forgotten story of a man whose memory was deliberately erased by the Church. Jerusalem was the place where Jesus taught and was crucified. According to tradition, he was the first formal leader or bishop of Jerusalem, the author of the James in the New Testament, and the first of the Seventy of Luke 10:1-20. The following is adapted from The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius Pamphilus. " According to protestant theologian Philip Schaff, James seems to have taken the place of James the son of Zebedee, after his martyrdom, around 44 AD. Jesus' brothers – James as well as Jude, Simon and Joses – are named in Matthew 13:55 and Mark 6:3 and mentioned elsewhere. ": In this case, James was one of Joseph's children from his previous marriage and, therefore, Jesus' stepbrother. Since this Clopas is, according to Eusebius, Joseph of Nazareth's brother (see above) and this Mary is said to be Mary of Nazareth's sister, James could be related to Jesus by blood and law.. For the Jews slew him, although he was a most just man.Â»". He alone, I say, was wont to go into the temple: and he used to be found kneeling on his knees, begging forgiveness for the people-so that the skin of his knees became horny like that of a camel's, by reason of his constantly bending the knee in adoration to God, and begging forgiveness for the people.. , Clement of Alexandria relates that "James was thrown from the pinnacle of the temple, and was beaten to death with a club". , One argument supporting this view is that it would have been against Jewish custom for Jesus to give his mother to the care of John (who is not at all suspected to be a blood relative of Jesus) if Mary had other living sons. Paul describes these Pillars as the ones who will minister to the "circumcised" (in general Jews and Jewish Proselytes) in Jerusalem, while Paul and his fellows will minister to the "uncircumcised" (in general Gentiles) (2:12),[note 5] after a debate in response to concerns of the Christians of Antioch. , According to a passage found in existing manuscripts of Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews, (xx.9) "the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James" met his death after the death of the procurator Porcius Festus but before Lucceius Albinus had assumed office (Antiquities 20,9) – which has been dated to 62. 1, p. 363. The name also helps distinguish him from other important figures in early Christianity of the same name, such as James, son of Zebedee. This man was a true witness to both Jews and Greeks that Jesus is the Christ. And whoever enters through this gate, according to the Second Apocalypse, not only belongs to Jesus, but also to James. Clement of Alexandria (late 2nd century) wrote in the sixth book of his Hypotyposes that James the Just was chosen as a bishop of Jerusalem by Peter, James (the Greater) and John: "For they say that Peter and James and John after the ascension of our Saviour, as if also preferred by our Lord, strove not after honor, but chose James the Just bishop of Jerusalem. Saint James, also called James, The Lord’s Brother, (died ad 62, Jerusalem; Western feast day May 3), a Christian apostle, according to St. Paul, although not one of the original Twelve Apostles. "[note 7]. Paul describes James as being one of the persons to whom the risen Christ showed himself,[note 4] and in Galatians 2:9, Paul mentions James with Cephas and John the Apostle as the three "pillars" of the Church.. So James and the other "brothers" of Jesus are considered by many to be Jesus's younger half-brothers, born of Mary and Joseph. Jerome's opinion suggests an identification of James the Just with the Apostle James, son of Alphaeus; Clopas and Alphaeus are thought to be different Greek renderings of the same Aramaic name Khalphai. James's name always appears first in lists, which suggests he was the eldest among them. We look at what Jesus’ brother once wrote, and thereby shed light on Jesus the Christ’s actual “redeeming act” in this context. In the dialogue, Peter speaks twice (3:12; 9:1) but misunderstands Jesus. As most scholars consider them spurious, they are often ascribed to Pseudo-Hippolytus. Non-Jews were certainly part of the mix but the dominant ethos of the group was an adherence to what Paul calls … The ‘Mother of God’ had other children?! Nevertheless, not everyone is convinced. Furthermore, the Second Apocalypse tells us that Jesus kissed his brother on the mouth and said to him: “My beloved! In the list of the disciples found in the Gospels, two disciples whose names are James, the son of Alphaeus and James, son of Zebedee are mentioned in the list of the twelve disciples: (Matthew 10:1â4). And he departed, and went into another place. Who will be our leader?"  Despite this, some biblical scholars tend to distinguish them; this is also not Catholic dogma, though a traditional teaching.  According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, he is not, however, identified with James the Great, although this is disputed by some. The second-century writer and historian Hegesippus referred to Jesus' brother as James the Just and characterized him as zealous for the law of God. (Acts 15:13â21). Vespasian's siege and capture of Jerusalem delayed the selection of Simeon of Jerusalem to succeed James. affirms the existence of the historical Jesus. He has been called the Just by all from the time of our Saviour to the present day; for there were many that bore the name of James. He was widely regarded as a pious Jew known for his conviction and for his concern for the poor. ...Then after fourteen years I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus along with me. Which is why they were never really interested in clarifying such fallacies. We will explore which feeble tricks the Church used to explain these facts away, why Jesus cannot have been conceived by the Holy Ghost, and what this all has to do with celibacy in a later edition of Facts are Facts. The Gospel of Thomas relates that the disciples asked Jesus, after his resurrection and before his Ascension, "We are aware that you will depart from us. (Mark 16:1). " Epiphanius (Panarion 29.4) describes James as a Nazirite. The inscription was ancient, not modern, obviously authentic.” Most scholars and all scientific test results that are available to the public confirm the authenticity of the inscription. James the Just, also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure in Early Christianity.. If Christianity had built its church on this rock, the world would be a different place today. Helen was born on November 25 1762, in Inchture Perth Scotland. When Peter, having miraculously escaped from prison, must flee Jerusalem due to Herod Agrippa's persecution, he asks that James be informed (Acts 12:17). and are not his sisters here with us? And he said, Go show these things unto James, and to the brethren. Here are just a few things we can know about James. The world-renowned expert in 2,000-year-old Aramaic hieroglyphics was in Israel for a few months doing research where he had met with private antiquities collectors several times. James The Brother of Jesus mentioned by the historian Josephus According to the Bible, James, who wrote the book of James found in the New Testament, was the brother of Jesus Christ. [note 8]. In the year 553 A.D., 165 Church officials condemned reincarnation. He even ascribed life-long chastity to Joseph. But I saw none of the other apostles except James the Lord's brother. (Acts 21:17â18), The Synoptic Gospels, similarly to the Epistle to the Galatians, recognize a core group of three disciples (Peter, John and James) having the same names as those given by Paul. 2. The remains, or relics, of St James the Greater, were then transported by his followers to the Iberian Peninsula (today’s Galicia in Spain) and are said to be buried in Santiago de Compostela, which is why St James the Greater is the patron saint of Spain.. insist that James was a "perpetual virgin" from the womb, a term which according to Robert Eisenman was later converted to his mother, Mary. ", "James the Just" redirects here. Jesus said to them, 'Where you are, you are to go to James the Just, for whose sake heaven and earth came into existence'. It makes sense, then, that this apocryphal writing calls the “Brother of the Lord” also an “Illuminator and Saviour”, “he whom the heavens bless”. What Paul and the Christian Church made of this no longer bears any relation to the truth. Mark 6:2-3 says: "And when the Sabbath had come, He began to teach in the synagogue. , Some writers, such as R.V. ", "Hegesippus (Roberts-Donaldson translation)", "Eusebius Church History Book 2:1 quoting Clement of Alexandria's Sixth Hypotyposes", New Testament Apocrypha: Gospels and related writings, "Gospel of Thomas (Lambdin Translation) -- The Nag Hammadi Library", "American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese of North America - The Protoevangelium of St. James", Bechtel, Florentine. , Hegesippus (2nd century), in the fifth book of his Commentaries, mentions that James was made a bishop of Jerusalem but he does not mention by whom: "After the apostles, James the brother of the Lord surnamed the Just was made head of the Church at Jerusalem.". Read here the forgotten story of a man whose memory was deliberately erased by the Church. 218-222, Eisenman, Robert (2002), James, the Brother of Jesus" (Watkins), Hill D., The Gospel of Matthew, p80 (1972) Marshall, Morgan and Scott:London, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Constantine Zalalas: Holy Theotokos: Apologetic Study, This position is articulated in footnotes of the, Ante-Nicean Fathers, ed. Scholars and theologians who assert this point out that Jesus was called "the son of Mary" rather than "a son of Mary" in his hometown (Mark 6:3).. , On December 29, 2004, Golan was indicted in an Israeli court along with three other men – Robert Deutsch, an inscriptions expert who teaches at Haifa University; collector Shlomo Cohen; and antiquities dealer Faiz al-Amaleh. The New Testament mentions several people named James. James was called "the Just" because of his righteousness and piety. By repeatedly referring to his brother as “beloved”, Jesus was clearly indicating that he had selected James to be his spiritual heir and successor. Find out more here: Reincarnation: The Church's Biggest Lie. OF CHRIST: FIRST BISHOP OF THE CHURCH.  It is agreed by most that he should not be confused with James, son of Zebedee.. The argument was that the destruction was a consequence of divine retribution because of what was done to James" in, John Painter. He was also known as the half-brother of Jesus and author of the Epistle of James.  Josephus reports that Hanan's act was widely viewed as little more than judicial murder and offended a number of "those who were considered the most fair-minded people in the City, and strict in their observance of the Law", who went so far as to arrange a meeting with Albinus as he entered the province in order to petition him successfully about the matter. Who will be our leader?” Jesus said unto them, “In the place where you are to go, go to James the Just, for whose sake Heaven and Earth came into existence.”, Professor André Lemaire from the Sorbonne University in Paris was speechless, not to mention shocked. So is the 'James ossuary' for real? For we all listen to thy persuasion; since we, as well as all the people, bear thee testimony that thou art just, and showest partiality to none. His feast days are on October 23, December 26 and the next Sunday of the Nativity along with King David and Saint Joseph and January 4 among the Seventy Apostles. James the Just was not only Jesusâ younger brother, but also his successor as leader of the first Christians.  Raymond E. Brown also argues that "the immediate context favors a lack of future implication here, for Matthew is concerned only with stressing Mary's virginity before the child's birth". A claim that was first put out into the world by the ‘Church Father’ Jerome (347-419), four hundred years after Jesus’ death. These letters were sent out as circular epistles to be passed around and read in several locations. Paul was affiliated with this community, and took his central kerygma, as described in 1 Corinthians 15, from this community. Jerome also concluded that James "the brother of the Lord" is the same as James the Less. And whoever calls the shots in Jerusalem also radiates his authority into the far-spread Christian congregations such as Antioch, Ephesus, Corinth, or Rome. It was the seat of the Apostle’s Council (led by James), the Mother Church and it was the epicentre of a new spiritual current that was about to conquer the world. And Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea (c. 260-340) and commonly accepted “father of Church history”, even goes so far as to write that James was the first to “sit on the Episcopal throne of the Jerusalem Church.”. Once the body had decomposed to the bare skeleton, the bones would be lovingly gathered up and interred in a small stone casket, which is known as an ossuary.1, This alone was not enough to excite an archaeologist, since thousands of bone-boxes such as this had previously been found in the area around Jerusalem. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. And immediately it is added, 'He took bread and blessed and broke and gave it to James the Just and said to him, "My brother, eat your bread, for the Son of Man is risen from the dead."' Clement, in the seventh book of the same work, relates also the following concerning him: "The Lord after his resurrection imparted knowledge (gnÅsin) to James the Just and to John and Peter, and they imparted it to the rest of the apostles, and the rest of the apostles to the seventy, of whom Barnabas was one. Prior to that time, it had been a fundamental Christian teaching: following the trail of a conspiracy that changed the world. The apocryphal Gospel of Philip seems to list a Mary as a sister of Jesus without specifying whether she is the daughter of Mary and Joseph or the daughter of Joseph by a previous marriage. According to this view, Clopas fathered James and the later siblings, but not Jesus. And a little further on the Lord says, 'bring a table and bread.' The Church father Clement of Alexandria (150-215) writes, for example, in his work Hypotyposes (Outlines): “After the Saviour’s ascension, neither Peter nor James (the son of Zebedee) nor John claimed primacy (although they were especially recognised by the Saviour), since they elected James the Just to be bishop of Jerusalem.”. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. And the day following Paul went in with us unto James; and all the elders were present. According to Hegesippus, the scribes and Pharisees came to James for help in putting down Christian beliefs.  Rather, something like "sons of the mother of Jesus" would have been used to indicate a common mother. And one of them, who was a fuller, took the club with which he beat out clothes and struck the just man on the head".  According to the apocryphal First Apocalypse of James, James is not the earthly brother of Jesus, but a spiritual brother who according to the Gnostics "received secret knowledge from Jesus prior to the Passion". Josephus’s mention of Jesus to specify which James was being executed by the high priest Ananus in 62 C.E. If he is an apostle, he must be the son of AlphÃ¦us and a believer in Jesus, The only conclusion is that the Mary, who is described as the mother of James the Less was the wife of AlphÃ¦us and sister of Mary the Lord's mother, the one who is called by John the Evangelist "Mary of Clopas":F.15. The bishop of Salamis, Epiphanius, wrote too in his work The Panarion (AD 374-375) that "...James (brother of Jesus) was Joseph's son by Joseph's first wife, not by Mary..." He adds that Joseph became the father of James and his three brothers (Joses, Simeon, Judah) and two sisters (a Salome and a Mary or a Salome and an Anna) with James being the elder sibling. James was the last named figure to speak, after Peter, Paul, and Barnabas; he delivered what he called his "decision" (Acts 15:13-21 NRSV) – the original sense is closer to "opinion". He is sometimes referred to in Eastern Christianity as "James Adelphotheos" (Greek: á¼¸Î¬ÎºÏÎ²Î¿Ï á½ á¼Î´ÎµÎ»ÏÏÎ¸ÎµÎ¿Ï), James the Brother of God. 6 clear reasons why Psalm 22 can't possibly describe anyone else but Jesus of Nazareth. Vol. The EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica relates that "James the Lord's brother was a Christian apostle, according to St. Paul, although not one of the original Twelve Apostles. , The Apocryphon of James, the sole copy of which was found in the Nag Hammadi library and which may have been written in Egypt in the 3rd century, recounts a post-resurrection appearance of the risen Christ to James and Peter that James is said to have recorded in Hebrew. And from those who seemed to be influential (what they were makes no difference to me; God shows no partiality)âthose, I say, who seemed influential added nothing to me. "Origen twice asserts that Josephus said that the destruction of Jerusalem occurred because of what was done to James. James, called the brother of our Lord, because he is also called the son of Joseph, who was esteemed the father of Christ, because the Virgin, being betrothed to him "was found with child by the Holy Spirit before they came together." Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson and A. Cleaveland Coxe, vol. James the Just was not only Jesus’ younger brother, but also his successor as leader of the first Christians. James Just was born on month day 1774, at birth place, to James Just and Helen Just (born Kinmond). These four are found in the Gospel...(Fragment X), Thus James, the brother of the Lord would be the son of Alphaeus, who is the husband of Mary the wife of Cleophas or Mary the wife of Alphaeus. " Other epithets are "James the brother of the Lord, surnamed the Just," and "James the Righteous". 6 then he appeared to above five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater part remain until now, but some are fallen asleep; He was leader of the Jerusalem Christians, who with Saints Peter and John the … In a 4th-century letter pseudographically ascribed to the 1st century Clement of Rome, James was called the "bishop of bishops, who rules Jerusalem, the Holy Church of the Hebrews, and all the Churches everywhere".. , James, the brother of Jesus, was also stoned to death by the Jews. According to the surviving fragments of the work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord of the Apostolic Father Papias of Hierapolis, who lived c. 70â163 AD, Cleophas and Alphaeus are the same person, and Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus would be the mother of James the brother of Jesus, and of Simon and Judas (Thaddeus), and of one Joseph. After saying that James the Less is the same as James, the son of Mary of Cleophas, wife of Alphaeus and sister of Mary the Lord's mother, Jerome describes in his work De Viris Illustribus that James "the brother of the Lord" is the same as James, the son of Alpaheus and Mary of Cleophas: James, who is called the brother of the Lord, surnamed the Just, the son of Joseph by another wife, as some think, but, as appears to me, the son of Mary sister of the mother our Lord Mary of Cleophas of whom John makes mention in his book (John 19:25). 5 (Peabody MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1999), 254â6. According to Eusebius, the Jerusalem church escaped to Pella during the siege of Jerusalem by the future Emperor Titus in 70 and afterwards returned, having a further series of Jewish bishops until the Bar Kokhba revolt in 130. 9004115501. format(s) Book Back; 0 Marked; Mark; Options Refworks Print Link Email Cite Request Get help Holdings. Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not them, which from among the Gentiles are turned to God: But that we write unto them, that they abstain from pollutions of idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from blood. Share the article with your friends and relatives or send us Feedback. Who will be our leader?' " The Dead Sea Scrolls have been interpreted to refer contemporaneously to James as "the Righteous Teacher" in the Habakkuk Pesher by Robert Eisenman.. And they were offended at him. The extant manuscripts of the book Antiquities of the Jews, written by the first-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus around 93–94 AD, contain two references to Jesus of Nazareth and one reference to John the Baptist.. The Jerusalem Church was an early Christian community located in Jerusalem, of which James and Peter were leaders. Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 275 â 339) reports the tradition that James the Just was the son of Joseph's brother Clopas and therefore was of the "brothers" (which he interprets as "cousin") of Jesus described in the New Testament. For the King of Aragon, see, Brother of Jesus, according to the New Testament, Younger half-brother, son of Mary and Joseph, Older stepbrother, son of Joseph by an earlier marriage, Younger half-brother, son of Mary and a second husband, Identification with James, son of Alpheus, and with James the Less, Possible identity with James, son of Alphaeus, á¼¸Î¬ÎºÏÎ²Î¿Ï á½ á¼Î´ÎµÎ»ÏÏÎ¸ÎµÎ¿Ï, Since Catholics and Eastern Orthodox, as well as some, These terms (circumcised/uncircumcised) are generally interpreted to mean, One corpus commonly cited as proof of this are the, According to Hegesippus, Clement of Alexandria, and Eusebius of Caesarea, Origen of Alexandria. This Ebionite/Nazarene movement was made up of mostly Jewish followers of John the Baptizer and later Jesus, who were concentrated in Palestine and surrounding regions and led by “James the Just” (the oldest brother of Jesus), and flourished between the years 30-80 C.E. The Roman Church has unfortunately confused James the Just with one of the Twelve, James the son of Alphaeus (Acts 1:13), and commemorates him under that name on May 3. (In what I am writing to you, before God, I do not lie!) The Pauline epistles and the later chapters of the Acts of the Apostles portray James as an important figure in the Christian community of Jerusalem. and John 7:5 says, "Even his own brothers did not believe in him.". “I was stunned,” he later recounted. If we look beyond the Bible and study the early Christian literature, the person of James shines in a much brighter light. To explain this, Jerome first tells that James the Less must be identified with James, the son of Alphaeus, and reports in his work The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary the following: Do you intend the comparatively unknown James the Less, who is called in Scripture the son of Mary, not however of Mary the mother of our Lord, to be an apostle, or not? Unlike Paul, James taught that Man could only redeem himself by performing good deeds. In light of this information, it becomes clear why Peter, after his escape from prison, first wants to inform “James and the brothers” (Acts 12:17). Many statements from James' letter prove Hegesippus was right; it represents a book of Christian proverbs that cover subjects that touch many aspects of Christian life. (1) Mary the mother of the Lord; (2) Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus, who was the mother of James the bishop and apostle, and of Simon and Thaddeus, and of one Joseph; (3) Mary Salome, wife of Zebedee, mother of John the evangelist and James; (4) Mary Magdalene. x, 299 p. ISBN. Leiden ; Boston : Brill, c1999. The Synoptics mention his name, but provide no further information. Thus, Jerome concludes that James, the son of Alphaeus, James the Less, and James, brother of the Lord, are one and the same person. Jesus said to them, "No matter where you come [from] it is to James the Just that you shall go, for whose sake heaven and earth have come to exist. It was only much later, in response to the Reformation, that the Roman Church declared the dogma of Mary's perpetual virginity. 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